Wednesday, October 31, 2007

For the death metal band, see Hypocrisy (band).
Hypocrisy is the act of condemning or calling for the condemnation of another person when the critic is guilty of the act for which he demands that the accused be condemned. Though hypocrisy is frequently invoked as an accusation in debates, a few theorists have studied the utility of hypocrisy, and in some cases have suggested that the conflicts manifested as hypocrisy are a necessary or even beneficial part of human behavior and society.

Merriam-Webster defines hypocrisy as "a feigning to be what one is not or to believe what one does not."
Webster's New World Dictionary defines it thus: "A pretending to be what one is not, or to feel what one does not feel, especially a pretense of virtue, piety, etc." It defines hypocrite as follows: "a person who pretends to be what he is not, one who pretends to be better than he really is."
Since the root of the word comes from actors acting a part, the definition as laid out in dictionaries makes sense. It appears popular usage uses the word to mean something different from its dictionary definition.
Popularily, it is believed an act of hypocrisy has the aim to condemn another person or people, but not to condemn an act; when the critic makes verbal attacks or demands of punishment against perpetrators of the act that one practices oneself. The word hypocrisy is used to mean, simply put, the pot calling the kettle black. One is hard put to find dictionary support of that meaning.
Hypocrisy, then, consists of pretense, feigning, phoniness, being two-faced, insincerity. The theme of insincerity underlies the words of Jesus in the Christian Bible when he calls certain Pharisees to task for being hypocrites, i.e., insincere in their religious practices.

Defining hypocrisy
Hypocrisy has been described alongside lack of sincerity, as a characteristic which attracts particular opprobrium in the modern age.

Psychology of hypocrisy
Hypocrisy is often utilized intentionally as a form of sarcastic humor, not only in film and television, but among the population. Of course, there is a distinct boundary between humorous hypocrisy and what can be interpreted as serious hypocrisy. Often, if the hypocrisy act is carried out too long, one may get the impression that they are serious. Another form of serious hypocrisy that was intended to be funny is when the listener does not realize that it is humor, or when the speaker insults the listener. In comedy writing, this is sometimes called a "Stan Daniels turn," a joke setup where "a character says something and then does an immediate 180-degree shift on what he just said," according to The Simpsons producer Al Jean.

Theoretical issues

Tu quoque
Moral absolutism
Moral relativism
Pot calling the kettle black
Champagne socialist
Discourse on Judgementalism

Tuesday, October 30, 2007

KTAZ is a NBC Telemundo owned-and-operated television station in Phoenix, Arizona, broadcasting in analog on UHF channel 39 from South Mountain. It has no separate digital channel. KTAZ airs Spanish-language programming from the Telemundo network.

KTAZ License swap
Because it was granted an original construction permit after the FCC finalized the DTV allotment plan on April 21, 1997 [4], the station did not receive a companion channel for a digital television station. Instead, on or before February 17, 2009, which is the end of the digital TV conversion period for full-service stations, KTAZ will be required to turn off its analog signal and turn on its digital signal (called a "flash-cut").

Monday, October 29, 2007

Court of Exchequer
Court of Exchequer may refer to:
Exchequer of pleas, an ancient English court, that ceased to exist independently in the late nineteenth century
Court of Exchequer Chamber, an ancient English appellate court, that ceased to exist independently in the late nineteenth century.
Court of Exchequer (Scotland)', an ancient Scottish Court

Sunday, October 28, 2007

There are a multitude of languages spoken in Canada, but only English, French and certain aboriginal languages have official status. The Constitution of Canada itself recognizes two official languages, English and French, and all constitutional acts since 1982 have themselves been enacted in these two official languages. The English version of earlier Constitutional Acts is the only official version. Inuktitut notably has official status in the Northwest Territories, in Nunavut and in Nunavik, Quebec.
The first major step towards official recognition of languages other than English took place on July 7, 1969, when the federal Canadian Parliament adopted the Official Languages Act, making French commensurate to English throughout federal institutions. Since then, Inuktitut, Dene Suline, Cree, Dogrib, Gwich'in and Slavey have also gained limited official status, although only English and French are used for administrative matters by the federal, provincial and territorial administrations.
According to the 2001 census, Anglophones and Francophone represent roughly 59.3% and 22.9% of the population respectively. The rest of the population represent persons whose mother tongues are Chinese, Vietnamese, Spanish, Italian, German, Aboriginal languages, or other.
The following article refers to language by mother tongue unless otherwise specified.

English and French have equal status in federal courts, Parliament, and in all federal institutions. The public has the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French. While multiculturalism is an official policy of the federal government, to obtain Canadian citizenship, a candidate must normally be able to speak either English or French.
The principles of bilingualism in Canada are protected in sections 16 to 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms of 1982 which establishes that:
New Brunswick is the only officially bilingual province, a status specifically guaranteed by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms of 1982. Some provincial governments which are not officially bilingual, notably Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec, offer services to their official language minority populations.
Until 1977, however, Quebec was the only officially bilingual province in Canada and most public institutions functioned in both languages. With the adoption of the Charter of the French Language by Quebec's National Assembly in August 1977, however, French became the sole official language of the government of Quebec. However, the French Language Charter also provides certain rights for speakers of English and aboriginal languages and most government services are available in both French and English. Regional institutions in Northern Quebec notably offer services in Inuktitut and Cree.
All three federal territories recognize both English and French as official languages, although English is the only language used for administrative purposes. Dene Suline, Cree, Dogrib, Gwich'in and Slavey also have some official status in the Northwest Territories. Inuktitut, which is the majority language in both Nunavut and Nunavik, also has official status in both territories.

French and English are equal to each other as federal official languages;
Debate in Parliament may take place in either official language;
Federal laws shall be printed in both official languages, with equal authority;
Anyone may deal with any court established by Parliament, in either official language;
Everyone has the right to receive services from the federal government in his or her choice of official language;
Members of a minority language group of one of the official languages if learned and still understood (i.e., French speakers in a majority English-speaking province, or vice versa) or received primary school education in that language has the right to have their children receive a public education in their language, where numbers warrant. Languages of Canada Official bilingualism
More than 98% of Canadian residents speak either English or French. While the federal government remains officially bilingual, almost 99% of Canadian residents outside Quebec speak English and about 95% of Quebec residents speak French (2001 Census). Most Canadians outside Quebec are fluent only in English and many Quebeckers are fluent only in French.
About 40% of Quebec residents and about 10% of the population residing outside Quebec claim to be bilingual (2001 Census). All together, 18% of Canadian residents speak both English and French, according to the answers they provided to Statistics Canada. Thus, a majority of bilingual Canadians are themselves Quebeckers.
French is mostly spoken in Quebec, in New Brunswick, in Eastern and Northern Ontario, in southern Manitoba as well as in several communities in the other provinces. A distinct community also exists on Newfoundland's Port-au-Port peninsula; a remnant of French occupation of the island. Canada's francophones numbered some 6.9 million individuals in 2001. Of these, 85% resided in Quebec. In addition to francophones of French-Canadian and Acadian origin, many francophones of Haiti, France, Belgium, Morocco, Lebanon and Switzerland have emigrated to Quebec since the early 1960s. As a result of this wave of immigration and the assimilation of many earlier generations of non-francophone immigrants (Irish, English, French, Italian, Portuguese, etc.), Canadian-born francophones of Quebec are of diverse ethnic origin. Five francophone Premiers of Quebec have been of British ethnic origin, as defined by Statistics Canada: John Jones Ross, Edmund James Flynn, Daniel Johnson, Sr, Pierre Marc Johnson and Daniel Johnson, Jr.
The assimilation of francophones outside Quebec into the English-Canadian society signifies that most francophones outside Quebec are generally of French-Canadian or Acadian origin, with the exception of recent immigrants from the francophone world. Over one million Canadians of French ethnic origin living outside of Quebec have English as their mother tongue (1991 Census, ethnic origin and mother tongue, by province).

Other languages
See also: Canadian Gaelic and Newfoundland Irish
Irish and Scottish Gaelic were spoken by many immigrants that settled in the Maritimes and Newfoundland. Newfoundland is the only place outside Europe to have its own Irish dialect, Newfoundland Irish, and the only place outside Europe to have its own distinct name in Irish, Talamh an Éisc, meaning 'land of the fish'. The Irish language is rare in Newfoundland now. Scottish Gaelic was spoken predominantly in areas of northern New Brunswick's Restigouche River valley, central and southeastern Prince Edward Island, as well as across the whole of northern Nova Scotia and particularly Cape Breton Island. While the language has mostly disappeared, there are regional pockets mostly centred on families deeply committed to their Celtic traditions; Nova Scotia, currently has 500-1000 fluent speakers, mostly in northwestern Cape Breton Island. There are also attempts in Nova Scotia to institute Gaelic immersion and there are formal post-secondary studies in the language and culture available through St. Francis Xavier University and the Gaelic College. In western Canada, Scottish Gaelic was mixed with Cree to form the Bungee language. At one point a motion was tabled in Parliament that Gaelic be made the third official language of the Dominion, but did not pass.


Main article: Canadian Ukrainian Ukrainian
Some members of the 900,000 Indigenous people in Canada (3%) speak one or more of fifty different languages. The most important languages still used are Cree, Inuktitut, Ojibway, Innu, and Mi'kmaq. A 1996 census revealed that about 67.8% of Indigenous people reported to be native English speakers. Nearly half (47%) of Indigenous people in Quebec reported an Indigenous language as mother tongue, the highest proportion of any province.

Languages of Canada Indigenous languages

Hybrid languages
Linguistic and cultural diversity on Canada's frontier in the West and in its early past in the Atlantic promoted the development of hybrid languages, most notably Michif, a "mixed language" of Cree-Ojibwa-Assiniboine-French evolved within the Prairie Metis community, and also the less documented Bungie (also Bungy, Bungee, Bungay, a.k.a. the Red River Dialect), which is similar to Michif but confined to the Red River area of Manitoba and which is a mix of Cree and Scots Gaelic.

Michif and Bungay
In the Gulf of St. Lawrence in Cartier's day the existence of a Basque pidgin has been established, apparently a mix of local Algonkian languages and Basque.

Basque pidgin
In British Columbia, Yukon and throughout the Pacific Northwest a pidgin language known as the Chinook Jargon emerged in the early 19th Century which was a combination of Chinookan, Nootka, Chehalis, French and English, with a smattering of words from other languages including Hawaiian and Spanish.

Chinook Jargon
Mother tongue: The language spoken by the mother or the person responsible for taking care of the child is the most basic measure of a population's language. However, with the high number of mixed francophone-anglophone marriages and the reality of bilingualism and trilingualism, this description does not allow to fully determine the real linguistic portrait of Canada. It is, however, still essential, for example in order to calculate the assimilation rate.
Home language: This is the language most often spoken at home. This descriptor has the advantage of pointing out the current usage of languages. It however fails to describe the language that is most spoken at work, which may be a different language.
Knowledge of Official Languages: This measure describes which of the two official languages of Canada a person can speak informally. This relies on the person's own evaluation of his/her linguistic competence and can prove misleading. It was developed by Statistics Canada.
First Official Language Spoken: This is a composite measure of mother tongue, home language and knowledge of official language. It was developed by Statistics Canada.
Official language minority: Based on first official language learned, but placing half of the people equally proficient in both English and French into each linguistic community; it is used by the Canadian government to define English- and French-speaking communities in order to guage demand for minority language services in a region.

Demolinguistic descriptors
Of the 29.6 million citizens of Canada in 2001 (increasing to roughly 33 million in June 2006), 17.3 million are native English speakers, 6.7 million are native French-speakers and 5.2 million are native speakers of neither of Canada's two official languages. Another 380 thousand reported having more than one mother tongue.
Statistics Canada, 2001

English 17,352,315
French 6,703,325
Chinese 753,745
Vietnamese 631,055
Spanish 480,715
Italian 469,485
German 438,080
Punjabi 271,220
English and a language other than French 219,860
Portuguese 213,815
Polish 208,375
Arabic 199,940
Tagalog 154,060
Ukrainian 148,090
Dutch 128,670
Greek 120,365
English and French 112,575
Russian 94,555
Persian 94,095
Tamil 90,010
Korean 85,070
Urdu 80,895
Hungarian 75,555
Cree 72,800
Gujarati 57,555
Hindi 56,325
Croatian 54,880
Romanian 50,895
Serbian 41,180
French and a language other than English 38,630
Japanese 34,815
Bengali 29,505
Inuktitut 29,005
Armenian 27,350
Serbo-Croatian 26,690
Somali 26,110
Czech 24,790
Finnish 22,405
Ojibway 21,000
Yiddish 19,295
Turkish 18,675
Danish 18,230
Slovak 17,545
Macedonian 16,905
Slovenian 12,800
Hebrew 12,435
Twi 11,070
Estonian 10,848
English, French and another language 10,085 Language composition by Mother Tongue
The population of Canada being unequally distributed throughout a vast territory, a look at the population of each of its ten provinces and three territories is helpful. The following table details the population of each province and territory by mother tongue.

Protection of Minority Language Speakers

Demographics of Canada
Immigration to Canada
Constitution of Canada
Bilingualism in Canada
French in Canada
Canadian English
Newfoundland English
Quebec English
Quebec French
Acadian French
Newfoundland French
Newfoundland Irish
Scottish Gaelic in Canada
Chinook Jargon
Canadian Ukrainian
Category:Languages of Canada
Category:Indigenous languages of the North American Arctic
Category:Indigenous languages of the North American Northwest Coast
Category:Indigenous languages of the North American Plains
Category:Indigenous languages of the North American Plateau
Category:Indigenous languages of the North American Subarctic
Category:Indigenous languages of the North American eastern woodlands

Saturday, October 27, 2007

Swindon Wildcats
Swindon, United Kingdom
White, Teal, and Grey
Wayne Fiddes
Peter Russell
Private Limited Company (Swindon Wildcats Limited)
Swindon npower Wildcats are an Ice Hockey team; they were originally formed with this name in 1986 as a council-operated venture before being privatised in the early 90s. Changes in ownership led to a name change for the 1996/97 season (Swindon IceLords). Subsequent owners in a short period of time saw several different clubs play out of the Swindon rink, including Swindon Chill (1998-2000), Swindon Phoenix (2000-2001) and Swindon Lynx (2001-2004).
Former player Steve Nell, referee Mark Thompson, and encumbent volunteers secured the operation of the team in 2004, immediately reverting the club to their original name much to the delight of the resurgent fan-base.
Sponsored by national energy company, RWE npower plc, the npower Wildcats compete in the English Premier Ice Hockey League.

Friday, October 26, 2007

List of municipalities in British Columbia
This is a list of municipalities in British Columbia, Canada. Municipalities of British Colombia are local governments incorporated by the province. In total, there are 157 municipalities in the province, covering over 85% of its population. They range from a 44 hectares (109 acres) village with less than 200 people to a city of 578,000 people. A municipality is created to allow a community to govern itself and to provide and regulate local services. These services typically include, but are not limited to, the provision of drinking water, sewers, roads, fire protection, street lights, garbage/recycling collection, land use planning, building inspection, and parks.

Municipal status

Thursday, October 25, 2007

Nathuram Vinayak Godse (Marathi: नथूराम विनायक गोडसे) (May 19, 1910November 15, 1949) was the assassin of Mahatma Gandhi.

Early life
Godse dropped out of high school and became an activist with the Hindu Mahasabha. Godse was an RSS activist who, according its leadership, left the organisation before the assassination. They were particularly opposed to the separatist politics of the All India Muslim League. Godse started a Marathi newspaper for Hindu Mahasabha called Agrani, some years later renamed Hindu Rashtra.
The Hindu Mahasabha had initially backed Gandhi's campaigns of civil disobedience against the British government.
However, Godse and his mentors later rejected Gandhi. They felt that Gandhi was sacrificing Hindu interests in an effort to appease minority groups. They blamed Gandhi for the bloody Partition of India, which left hundreds of thousands of people dead.

Nathuram Godse Godse's political career

The Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi
The immediate motive for the assassination is usually ascribed to Gandhi's decision to fast to the death unless the Indian central government reversed a decision to withhold the transfer of 55 crore (550 million) rupees to the government of Pakistan. The transfer had been specified in the partition agreement, but the Indian government had refused to complete it, complaining of continued Pakistani rebel occupation of disputed parts of Kashmir.
The Indian government immediately reversed its decision to withhold the funds, which infuriated Godse and his fellow Hindu radicals.
It is not clear whether the decision to assassinate Gandhi was taken by Godse alone, or whether he had consulted with other Mahasabha members, or even received their help in carrying out the assassination. The Mahasabha resolutely denied all complicity, and Godse took full responsibility. However, many critics believe that Godse did not act alone.

Following his assassination of Gandhi, Godse, who did not try to flee, was captured and put on trial beginning May 27, 1948. On November 8, 1949 Godse was sentenced to death for the killing. He was hanged at Ambala Jail on November 15, 1949 along with Narayan Apte, the other conspirator.

The trial and execution
Millions of Indians mourned Gandhi's assassination. Massive anti Brahmin riots spread, especially across the length and breadth of Maharashtra state, as Godse was a Bramhin. Sangli and Miraj regions were hit harder. Houses of Brahmins were burnt, people killed and families destroyed just because they shared the same caste as Godse. The Maratha protagonists were largely supposed to be behind the arson. Culprits for the riots went on scot free to date. The Hindu Mahasabha was vilified and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, the RSS, was temporarily banned. However, later investigators could find no evidence that the RSS bureaucracy had formally sponsored or even knew of Godse's plot. The RSS ban was lifted by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in 1949.
The RSS to this day denies any connection with Godse and dispute the claim that he was a member; they say that Godse was definitely a member of the Congress Party, and that if any party should be blamed, it should be the Congress, not the RSS.
Savarkar was also charged with conspiracy in the assassination of Gandhi, but was acquitted and subsequently released.
A film Nine Hours to Rama was made in 1963 and was based on the events leading up to the assassination, seen mainly from Godse's point-of-view. The film Hey Ram made in 2000 also briefly touches the events related to the assassination. The popular Marathi language drama "Mee Nathuram Godse Boltoy" (This is Nathuram Godse Speaking) was also made from Godse's point of view.
Noted historian Y D Phadke has written a comprehensive book- "Nathuramayan"-on the sorriest chapter in Indian history. He has debunked all the myths created by Hindu fundamentalists around Godse.

Wednesday, October 24, 2007

The Cook Islands are named from a Russian naval chart of the early 1880s, after Captain James Cook, who visited the islands in 1773 and 1779. The Cook Islands became a British protectorate in 1888.
By 1900, administrative control was transferred to New Zealand; in 1965 residents chose self-government in free association with New Zealand.
The Cook Islands contain fifteen islands in the group spread over a vast area in the South Pacific. The majority of islands are low coral atolls in Northern Group, with Rarotonga, a volcanic island in the Southern Group, as the main administration and government centre. The main Cook Islands language is Rarotongan Māori. There are some variations in dialect in the 'outer' islands.

History of the Cook Islands Television
In 2006, the British television station Channel 4 broadcast the TV series show Shipwrecked, which was filmed in the Cook Islands.
Also, in Fall 2006 , the 13th season of CBS's Survivor TV series was filmed in the Cook Islands over the summer of the same year (see: Survivor: Cook Islands).

Tuesday, October 23, 2007

The main centres of population in the borough are Chingford in the north, Walthamstow in the centre (and the administrative hub including the council offices) and Leyton and Leytonstone to the south. Waltham Forest has the fifth largest Muslim population in England and the third largest in London (coming after its neighbouring boroughs, Newham and Tower Hamlets).

Out of the 376 local government districts in England and Wales, Waltham Forest has the 11th largest non-white minority ethnic population. The largest minority ethnic group are black Afro-Carribeans/Africans with a population of 30,300, followed by Pakistanis who number over 17,000. Out of the 376 local government districts in England and Wales, it ranks 19th for over-crowded housing conditions, 29th for unemployment and 17th for number of single-parent households.


Lea Bridge
Hoe Street
Grove Green
Cann Hall
Wood Street
Higham Hill
High Street
Chapel End
William Morris
Hale End and Highams Park
Hatch Lane
Chingford Green Borough wards
Postcode areas which cover part of the borough include:

IG8 Postcode Areas

Cambridge Road estate, Walthamstow
Oatland Rise, Walthamstow
Gosport Road estate, Walthamstow
Chingford Hall estate, Chingford
Oliver Close, Leyton
Beaumont road, Leyton
Leyton Grange, Leyton
Cathall, Leytonstone
Thatched House, Leytonstone
Wanstead Flats, Leytonstone
Priory Court, Walthamstow London Borough of Waltham Forest Major Council Estates
Waltham Forest is one of five host boroughs in East London for the 2012 Olympics in London.
The London Velopark which will be constructed in the borough, will include a 6,000 seat indoor velodrome for track cycling and a 6,000 seat outdoor BMX racing track.
The training facilities at the Waltham Forest Pool & Track will be used by Olympians to prepare for the Olympics.



Ainslie Wood Primary School
Barclay Primary School
Barn Croft School
Beaumont Primary School
Cann Hall Primary School
Chapel End Infants' School
Chapel End Junior School
Chase Lane Primary School
Chingford CofE Infant School
Chingford CofE Junior School
Chingford Hall Community Primary School
Coppermill Primary School
Davies Lane Primary School
Dawlish Primary School
Downsell Primary School
Edinburgh Primary School
George Tomlinson Primary School
Greenleaf Primary School
Gwyn Jones Primary School
Handsworth Primary School
Henry Maynard Infants' School
Henry Maynard Junior School
Hillyfield Primary School
Jenny Hammond School
Larkswood Primary School
Longshaw Primary School
Mayville Primary School
Mission Grove Primary School
Newport School
Oakhill Primary School
Riverley Primary (formerly Church Mead Infants)
Roger Ascham Primary School
Selwyn Primary School
South Grove Primary School
St Helen's Catholic Infant School
St Joseph's Catholic Infant School
St Joseph's Catholic Junior School
St Mary's Catholic Junior School
St Mary's Catholic Primary School
St Mary's CofE VA Primary School
St Patrick's Catholic Primary School
St Saviour's CofE Voluntary Aided Primary School
Stoneydown Park Primary School
Sybourn Infants' School
Sybourn Junior School
The Woodside School
Thomas Gamuel Primary School
Thorpe Hall Primary School
Wellington Primary School
Whitehall Primary School
Whittingham Community Primary School
Willow Brook Primary (formerly Church Mead Juniors)
Winns Primary School
Woodford Green Primary School
Yardley Primary School Infants & Primary schools

Main article: List of Secondary Schools in Waltham Forest Secondary schools

Temple Mills
Lea Bridge
Cann Hall
Wood Street
Higham Hill
Walthamstow Central
Walthamstow village
Highams Park
North Chingford
Chingford Districts in Waltham Forest


Leyton tube station
Leytonstone tube station Central Line

Walthamstow Central tube station
Blackhorse Road tube station Victoria Line

St James Street railway station
Walthamstow Central railway station
Wood Street railway station
Highams Park railway station
Chingford railway station Lee Valley Line

Leyton Midland Road railway station
Leytonstone High Road railway station Notable residents

Waltham Forest parks and open spaces
Whipps Cross Hospital

Monday, October 22, 2007

From the Second Republic to the Jura Federation
Parts of the anarchist movement, based in Switzerland, started theorizing propaganda of the deed. After Auguste Vaillant's assassination attempt, the "Opportunist Republicans" voted in 1893 the first anti-terrorist laws, which were quickly denounced as lois scélérates. These laws severely restricted freedom of expression. The first one condemned apology of any felony or crime as a felony itself, permitting wide-spread censorship of the press. The second one allowed to condemn any person directly or indirectly involved in a propaganda of the deed act, even if no killing was effectively carried on. The last one condemned any person or newspaper using anarchist propaganda (and, by extension, socialist libertarians present or former members of the International Workingmen's Association (IWA):
"1. Either by provocation or by apology... [anyone who has] encouraged one or several persons in committing either a stealing, or the crimes of murder, looting or arson...; 2. Or has addressed a provocation to military from the Army or the Navy, in the aim of diverting them from their military duties and the obedience due to their chiefs... will be deferred before courts and punished by a prison sentence of three months to two years.

Anarchism in France The propaganda of the deed period and exile to Britain
Le Libertaire, a newspaper created by Sébastien Faure, one of the leader supporter of Alfred Dreyfus, and Louise Michel, alias "The Red Virgin", published its first issue on November 16, 1895. The Confédération générale du travail (CGT) trade-union was created the same year, from the fusion of the various Bourses du travail (Fernand Pelloutier), the unions and the industries' federations. Dominated by anarcho-syndicalists, the CGT adopted the Charte d'Amiens in 1906, a year after the unification of the other socialist tendencies in the SFIO party (French Section of the Second International) led by Jean Jaurès and Jules Guesde.
Only 8 French delegates attended the International Anarchist Congress of Amsterdam in August 1907. According to historian Jean Maitron, the anarchist movement in France was divided into those who rejected the sole idea of organisation, and were therefore opposed to the very idea of an international organisation, and those who put all their hopes in syndicalism, and thus "were occupied elsewhere" . The Fédération communiste révolutionnaire anarchiste, headed by Sébastien Faure, succeeded to the FCA in August 1913.
The French anarchist milieu also included many individualists. Influenced by Max Stirner's egoism and the criminal/political exploits of Clément Duval and Marius Jacob, France became the birthplace of illegalism, a controversial anarchist ideology that openly embraced criminality.
Relations between individualist and communist anarchists remained poor throughout the pre-war years. Following the 1913 trial of the infamous Bonnot Gang, the FCA condemned individualism as bourgeois and more in keeping with capitalism than communism. An article believed to have been written by Peter Kropotkin, in the British anarchist paper Freedom, argued that "Simple-minded young comrades were often led away by the illegalists' apparent anarchist logic; outsiders simply felt disgusted with anarchist ideas and definitely stopped their ears to any propaganda."
After the assassination of anti-militarist socialist leader Jean Jaurès a few days before the beginning of World War I, and the subsequent rallying of the Second International and the workers' movement to the war, even some anarchists supported the Sacred Union (Union Sacrée) government. Jean Grave, Peter Kropotkin and others published the Manifeste des Seize supporting the Triple Entente against Germany. A clandestine issue of the Libertaire was published on June 15, 1917.

After the war, the CGT became more reformist, and anarchists progressively drifted out. Formerly dominated by the anarcho-syndicalists, the CGT split into a non-communist section and a communist CGTU after the 1920 Tours Congress which marked the creation of the French Communist Party (PCF). A new weekly series of the Libertaire was edited, and the anarchists announced the imminent creation of an Anarchist Federation. A Union Anarchiste (UA) group was constituted in November 1919 against the Bolsheviks, and the first daily issue of the Libertaire got out on December 4, 1923.
Russian exiles, among them Nestor Makhno and Piotr Arshinov, founded in Paris the review Dielo Trouda (Дело Труда, The Сause of Labour) in 1925. Makhno co-wrote and co-published The Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists, which put forward ideas on how anarchists should organize based on the experiences of revolutionary Ukraine and the defeat at the hand of the Bolsheviks. The document was initially rejected by most anarchists, but today has a wide following. It remains controversial to this day, some (including, at the time of publication, Voline and Malatesta) viewing its implications as too rigid and hierarchical. Platformism, as Makhno's position came to be known, advocated ideological unity, tactical unity, collective action and discipline, and federalism. Five hundred people attended Makhno's 1934 funeral at the Père-Lachaise.
In June 1926, "The Organisational Platform Project for a General Union of Anarchists", best known under the name "Archinov's Platform", was launched. Voline responded by publishing a "Synthesis" project in his article Le problème organisationnel et l'idée de synthèse (The Organisational Problem and the Idea of a Synthesis). After the Orleans Congress (July 12-14, 1926), the Anarchist Union (UA) transformed itself into the Communist Anarchist Union (UAC, Union anarchiste communiste). The gap widened between proponents of Platformism and those who followed Voline's Synthesis.
The Congress of the Fédération autonome du Bâtiment (November 13-14, 1926 in Lyon, created the CGT-SR (Confédération Générale du Travail-Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire) with help from members of the Spanish Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), which prompted the CGT's revolutionary syndicalists to join it. Julien Toublet became the new trade-union's secretary. Le Libertaire became again a weekly newspaper in 1926.
At the Orleans Congress of October 31 and November 1, 1927, the UAC became Platformist. The minority of those whom followed Voline split and create the Association des fédéralistes anarchistes (AFA) which diffused the Trait d'union libertaire then La Voix Libertaire. Some Synthesists later rejoined the UAC (in 1930), which took the initiative of a Congress in 1934 to unite the anarchist movement on the basis of anti-fascism. The Congress took place on May 20 and 21, 1934, following the February 6, 1934 far right riots in Paris. All of the left wing feared a fascist coup d'état, and the anarchists were at the spearhead of the antifascist movement. The AFA dissolved itself the same year, and joined the new group, promptly renamed Union anarchiste. However, a Fédération communiste libertaire later created itself after a new split in the UA.
Anarchists then participated in the general strikes during the Popular Front (1936-38) which led to the Matignon Accords (40 hours week, etc.). Headed by Léon Blum, the Popular Front did not intervene in the Spanish civil war, because of the Radicals' presence in the government. Thus, Blum blocked the Brigades from crossing the borders and sent ambulances to the Republicans, while Hitler and Mussolini were sending men and weapons to Franco. In the same way, Blum refused to boycott the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, and to support the People's Olympiad in Barcelona. Some anarchists became members of International Antifascist Solidarity (Solidarité internationale antifasciste), which helped volunteers illegally cross the border, while others went to Spain and joined the Durruti Column's French-speaking contingent, The Sébastien Faure Century. A Fédération anarchiste de langue française (FAF) developed from a split in the UA, and denounce the collusion between the French anarchists with the Popular Front, as well as criticizing the CNT-FAI's participation to the Republican government in Spain. The FAF edited Terre libre, in which Voline collaborated. Before World War II, there are thus two organizations, the Union anarchiste (UA), which has as newspaper Le Libertaire, and the Fédération anarchiste française (FAF) which has the Terre libre newspaper. However, to the contrary of the French Communist Party (PCF) which had organized a clandestine network before the war — Edouard Daladier's government even had made it illegal after the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact —, the anarchist groups hadn't any clandestine infrastructure set in 1940. Hence, as all other parties apart of the PCF, they quickly became completely disorganized during and after the Battle of France.

From World War I to World War II
After Operation Barbarossa and the Allies' landing in North Africa, Marshall Pétain, head of the new "French State" which had replaced the Republic, saw "the bad wind approaching." (le mauvais vent s'approcher). The Resistance began to start organizing itself in 1942-1943. Meanwhile, the French police, under the orders of René Bousquet and his second, Jean Leguay, systematically added to the list of targets designed by the Gestapo (communists, freemasons and Jews) the anarchists .
On July 19, 1943, a clandestine meeting of anarchist activists took place in Toulouse; they spoke of the Fédération internationale syndicaliste révolutionnaire. On January 15, 1944, the new Fédération anarchiste decided on a charter approved in Agen on October 29-30, 1944. Decision was taken to publish clandestinely Le Libertaire as to maintain relations; its first issue was published in December 1944. After the Liberation, the newspaper again became a bi-weekly, and on October 6-7, 1945, the Assises du mouvement libertaire were held.

Under Vichy
The Fédération anarchiste (FA) was founded in Paris on December 2, 1945, and elected George Fontenis as first secretary the next year. It was composed of a majority of activists from the former FA (which supported Voline's Synthesis) and some members of the former Union anarchiste, which supported the CNT-FAI support to the Republican government during the Spanish Civil War, as well as some young Resistants. A youth organization of the FA (the ''Jeunesses libertaires) was also created. Apart of some individualist anarchists grouped behind Emile Armand, who published 'l'Unique' and 'L'En-dehors', and some pacifists (Louvet and Maille who published "A contre-courant"), the French anarchists were thus united in the FA. Furthermore, a confederate structure was created to coordinate publications with Louvet and 'Ce qu'il faut dire' newspaper, the anarcho-syndicalist minority of the reunited CGT (gathered into the Fédération syndicaliste française (FSF), they represented the "Action syndicaliste" current inside the CGT), and 'Le Libertaire" newspaper. The FSF finally transformed itself into the actual Confédération nationale du travail (CNT) on December 6, 1946, adopting the Paris charter and publishing 'Le Combat Syndicaliste'.
The Confédération nationale du travail (CNT, or National Confederation of Labour) was founded in 1946 by Spanish anarcho-syndicalists in exile with former members of the CGT-SR. The CNT later split into the CNT-Vignoles and the CNT-AIT, which is the French section of the IWA.
The anarchists started the 1947 insurrectionary strikes at the Renault factories, crushed by Interior Minister socialist Jules Moch, whom created for the occasion the Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (CRS) riot-police. Because of the CNT's inner divisions, some FA activists decided to participate to the creation of the reformist CGT-FO, issued from a split within the communist dominated CGT.
The FA participated to the International Anarchist Congress of Puteaux in 1949, which gathered structured organizations as well as autonomous groups and individuals (from Germany, USA, Bolivia, Cuba, Argentina, Peru...) Some communist anarchists organized themselves early 1950 in a fraction, named 'Organisation pensée bataille' (OPB) which had as aim to impose a single political stance and centralize the organization.
The GAAP (Groupes anarchistes d'action prolétarienne) were created on February 24-25, 1951, in Italy by former members of the FAI excluded at the congress of Ancône. The same year, the FA decides, on a proposition from the Louise Michel group animated by Maurice Joyeux, to substitute individual vote to group vote. The adopted positions gain federalist status, but are not imposed to individuals. Individualists opposed to this motion failed to block it. 'Haute fréquence', a surrealist manifest was published in ''Le Libertaire' on July 6, 1951. Some surrealists started working with the FA. Furthermore, the 'Mouvement indépendant des auberges de jeunesse' (MIAJ, Independent Movement of Youth Hostels) was created at the end of 1951.
The June 1952 Bordeaux Congress of the FA clearly adopted a communist libertarian orientation, leading to a first scission in October. The latter regroup in l'Entente anarchiste, bulletin de relation, d'information, de coordination, et d'étude organisationnelle du mouvement anarchiste, which first issue is dated October 30, 1952. The Entente gathered Georges Vincey, Tessier, Louis Louvet, André Prudhommeaux, but also Raymond Beaulaton and Fernand Robert, two strange individuals who would turn far right during the Algerian war.
Le Libertaire published on June 5, 1952 a letter from Albert Camus concerning Gaston Leval's study of "Bakunin and 'L'Homme révolté"
The FA transformed itself into the Fédération communiste libertaire (FCL) after the 1953 Congress in Paris, while an article in 'Le Libertaire' indicated the end of the cooperation with the surrealists. The FCL regrouped between 130 to 160 activists. The 'Entente anarchiste' dissolved itself and joined the new FCL, forcing Maurice Joyeux to compromise with the individual anarchists of the Entente. The new decision-making process was founded on unanimity: each person has a right of veto on the orientations of the federation. The FCL published the same year the 'Manifeste du communisme libertaire'.
The FCL published its 'workers' program' in 1954, which was heavily inspired by the CGT's revendications. The Internationale comuniste libertaire (ICL), which groups the Italian GAAP, the Spanish Ruta and the Mouvement libertaire nord-africain (MLNA, North African Libertarian Movement), was founded to replace the Anarchist International, deemed too reformist. The ICL, however, had only a short life period. The same year, the FCL criticized the 'bolchevik' orientation of the federation infiltrated by the secret OPB. The first issue of the monthly 'Monde libertaire', the news organ of the FA which would be published until 1977, got out in October 1954. On August 15-20, 1954, the Ve intercontinental plenum of the CNT took place.
On November 1, 1954, the Toussaint rouge (Red All Saints day) marked the beginning of the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62). The FCL supported the Algerian people's struggle, making it a target of state repression.
Gaston Leval quit the FA in 1955 to create the 'Cahiers du socialisme libertaire'. Several groups quit the FCL in December 1955, disagreeing with the decision to present 'revolutionary candidates' to the legislative elections. This scission gave rise to the creation of the GAAR (Groupes anarchistes d'action révolutionnaire) who published until 1970 the 'Noir et Rouge' newspaper. The GAAR claimed to be the "expression of the communist anarchist tendency of the libertarian movement". They adopted the platform, that is tactical and ideological unity, collective responsibility and support to the National Liberation Front.
The Fédération communiste libertaire (FCL) defined its 'critical support' to the Algerian people's struggle: anti-colonialism, support to progressive factions of Algerian resistance, and work as to make the fall of colonialism a revolutionary transformation of society. The FCL carried explosives and weapons for the MLNA. A member of the FCL, Pierre Morain, was condemned to prison in 1955, being the first French to be incarcerated for his solidarity with the Algerian cause.
Regrouped behind Robert and Beaulaton, some activists of the former Entente anarchiste quit the FA and created on November 25, 1956 in Bruxelles the AOA (Alliance ouvrière anarchiste), which edited 'L'Anarchie' and would drift to the far right during the Algerian war.
At the January 1956 legislative elections in Paris, the FCL presented some candidates and obtained some very scarce votes. State repression got worse, trials, censorship and seizing of the 'Libertaire' newspapers became current. Some FCL activists (George Fontenis, Philippe, Morain...) entered clandestinity to avoid prison, and the Libertaire ceased to be edited in July 1956. The MNLA, linked to the FCL, dissolved after harsh repression. The last FCL activists were arrested in 1957.

The Fourth Republic (1945-1958)
The Situationist International was one, often overestimated, influence in the 1950s. Anarchists participated in the riots and strikes of May 1968, and then in the autonomist movement. They were also largely present in new social movements, as well as in prisoners' movement such as the Groupe information prisons (GIP) founded by Michel Foucault and Daniel Defert. In the 1980s, they became involved in the struggle against expulsion of illegal aliens.

Anarchism in France The Fifth Republic (1958)
An uprising and general strike of students and workers in May of 1968 in Paris (and subsequently spreading to the rest of the country) was led in part by some anarchists, including the then-anarchist Daniel Cohn-Bendit.

May 1968
See also Category:French anarchists.

Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865)
Joseph Déjacque (1821-1864)
Louise Michel (1830-1905)
Elisée Reclus (1830-1905)
Georges Sorel (1847-1922)
Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921; he spent a long time in France)
Nestor Makhno (died in Paris in 1934, 500 hundred persons at his funeral at the Père Lachaise cemetery)
Jean Grave (1854-1939)
Sébastien Faure (1858-1942)
Jules Bonnot (1876-1912)
Marius Jacob (1879-1954)
Maurice Joyeux (1910-1991)
Georges Fontenis (1920)
Jean Maitron (1910-1987), French historian, specialized in the labour movement
Alexander Grothendieck (1928-?) Notable individuals

Anarchist Federation (FA, 1945)
Bonnot Gang (illegalist, 1911)
CNT-F (revolutionary-syndicalist, 1945)
CNT-AIT (anarcho-syndicalist, 1945) English section of the web site : [1]
No Pasaran (SCALP, antifascist,1984)
Alternative libertaire (1991, member of the International Libertarian Solidarity)
Libertarian Communist Organization (OCL, 1976)
Anarchists Union (1979) Bibliography

Federation Libertaire
CNT France
Radio Libertaire
Le Monde Libertaire

Sunday, October 21, 2007

Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County (Uyghur Yengi Yezik̢: Taxk̢urƣan; Simplified Chinese: 塔什库尔干塔吉克自治县; Pinyin: Tǎshìkù'ěrgàn Tǎjíkè zìzhìxiàn; Sariquli Tajik in IPA: tɔʃqyrʁɔn tuʤik ɔftunum nɔja; sometimes spelled Tashkorgan, Tashkurghan etc.) is one of the counties of Kashgar Prefecture in western Xinjiang.

The total population of Taxkorgan is 27800, among them 84% Tajiks, 4% Han and 12% other nationalities. (Figures of 1995)

During the Han dynasty, Taxkorgan was known as Puli(Púlí 蒲犁); during the Tang dynasty, it was a protectorate of the Parthians, during the Yuan dynasty it was part of the Chaghatai empire. Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County was created in 1954 and is part of the district of Kashgar.

Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County Main villages
The county is served by Karakoram Highway, which runs through Tashkorgan City.

Saturday, October 20, 2007

Wayne Munn was a professional wrestler and collegiate football player from the University of Nebraska.

Wayne Munn Wrestling career
His fame as a footballer attracted the attention of wrestling star, Ed Lewis and promoters Toots Mondt and Billy Sandow, who prematurely pushed Munn as the next big star in the sport. Munn won the World title from Lewis in 1925, despite his limited wrestling and shooting ability. This backfired on Lewis and his camp, as Munn subsequently lost the Title to Stanislaus Zbyszko in a famous double-cross (shoot), as Zbyszko legitimately pinned Munn, despite agreeing to lose to him prior to the match. Munn, unable to defend himself against Zbyszko's holds, was beaten decisively. Munn held the title for a little over three months.

Friday, October 19, 2007

Kornilov Affair
The Kornilov Affair (Russian: Корниловщина, Kornilovshchina) was a confused struggle between General Lavr Kornilov and Aleksandr Kerensky in August/September, 1917, in between the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the October Revolution. Recently appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Russian army, General Kornilov may have been the victim of Kerensky's jealousy of a possible rival. Kerensky was later to claim that the affair was a turning point in the revolution, in the sudden revival – and eventual triumph – of the Bolsheviks.
Kornilov shared the widespread belief of many Russians that the country was descending into anarchy and that military defeat on the Eastern front against the Central Powers would be disastrous for Russian pride and honour. Lenin and his 'German spies', he announced, should be hanged, the Soviets stamped out, military discipline restored and the provisional government restructured. He thought, thanks to unclear and perhaps deliberately distorted communications from Petrograd, that Kerensky had authorized him to impose order in the capital and restructure the government, and ordered the Third Corps to Petrograd to place it under martial law.
Ignoring attempts by Boris Savinkov, who suspected there was a misunderstanding, to mediate, Kerensky dismissed his commander-in-chief from his post on September 9, claiming Kornilov intended to set up a military dictatorship. Kornilov, convinced Kerensky had been taken prisoner by the Bolsheviks and was acting under duress, replied by issuing a call to all Russians to "save their dying land." Uncertain of the support of his army generals, Kerensky was forced to ask for help from other quarters – these included the Bolshevik Red Guards. When Kerensky wired General Krymov to halt the Third Corp's advance on Petrograd, Krymov obeyed once he realized the capital was not in fact in the hands of the Bolsheviks.
Kornilov's attempt to seize power collapsed without bloodshed as his Cossacks deserted the cause. He and some 7000 supporters were arrested. Although Kerensky survived the Kornilov coup, the event weakened his government substantially and paved the way for the Bolsheviks to seize power shortly thereafter in the October Revolution. The fact that Kerensky had also armed the Red Guards meant that when the October Revolution came the Red Army was more powerful than it perhaps could, and should have been.
Richard Pipes summarizes as follows (p 463): "Was there a 'Kornilov plot'? Almost certainly not. All the available evidence, rather, points to a 'Kerensky plot' engineered to discredit the general as the ringleader of an imaginary but widely anticipated counterrevolution, the suppression of which would elevate the Prime Minister to a position of unrivaled popularity and power... A commission appointed in October 1917 completed in June 1918... an investigation into the Kornilov Affair. It concluded that the accusations leveled at Kornilov were baseless: Kornilov's military moves had been intended not to overthrow the Provincial Government but to defend it from the Bolsheviks. The Commission completely exonerated Kornilov, accusing Kerensky of 'deliberately distort[ing] the truth in the matter of Kornilov from lack of courage to admit guilt for the grandiose mistake' he had committed."